American Pale Ale (APA) is probably one of the most widely brewed styles for homebrewers. OK, maybe it falls behind IPA and Stouts but I would bet that at some point in your brewing career you have crafted one. APA can be a difficult style to master though as brewing them really is an exercise in balance and finesse. I have heard brewery owner’s comment on how creating an APA can be a good test of a new (or prospective) employees brewing chops. Sure their new brewer can create exciting experimental styles but how do they do when it comes to this old classic? It’s kind of like a good chef being able to make a quality omelet.Hops Pic

There are a few moving parts to an APA. The first, and arguably most important, is the hop character. You need to hit a good level of hop bitterness while not going into IPA territory. One metric that helps keep you in the correct range is the bittering units to gravity units (BU:GU) ratio. This ratio is simply your IBUs divided by the last three digits of your OG. For me that sweet spot for an APA is between 0.7 and 0.8. The other end of the hop character equation is hop flavor and aroma.  I like to get at least half of my bittering from late hops and even lightly dry hop to really get the point across. This is where you need to be careful. Since you are working with a lower gravity beer, excess late process hops can lead to grassy flavors.

For the malt bill I generally like to use American 2-row with about 10% Munich and 5% C40. The Munich adds a subtly bready character and the C40 obviously a caramel character. This is another area where finesse is key. You want to create some malt complexity without taking away from drinkability or distracting from the hop character. If you overdo it with the caramel malt you can easily create a muddled APA. Use restraint here! Instead of using 2-row and Munich you could also try using 90% Maris Otter to get a similar effect. Additionally I like to use 5% carapils to help with body and head retention but you could also try using malted white wheat instead.

Water chemistry has a profound impact on an APA and this style greatly benefits from high levels of sulfate. I like to go all the way up to 300 ppm to make the beer very crisp and accentuate the hop character. Yeast should generally be neutral but sometimes I enjoy blending WLP 090 with an English strain to get a hint of fruity esters. This plays particularly well with new world fruity hops.

When I brew this APA I always keep the grain bill, water, and (usually) yeast the same but use different hops for each batch. The recipe below uses a blend of Belma, Amarillo, and Cascade but you can substitute any hop combination you want so long as you pay attention to your BU:GU. This recipe is also great for experimenting with new hop varieties by simply using one type.

I hope this recipe gets you closer to brewing that perfect APA! Feel free to comment below with questions or let me know what hop or yeast combinations you find enjoyable. You can follow all my brewing adventures on social media @hungusbrews and if you ever find yourself brewing one of my recipes, feel free to use #hungusbrews. Cheers!

Hand Stand Happy Hour

2008 10A – American Pale Ale  2015 18B – American Pale Ale
Recipe for 6 gallons of post boil

Malts

9 lb / 81.8% US 2-Row (Briess)
1 lb / 9.2% German Munich (Weyermann)
8 oz / 4.5% Carapils (Briess)
8 oz / 4.5% Caramel 40 (Briess)

Hops

20.5 IBU / 0.5 oz 10.4% Belma 60 Min
5.2 IBU / 0.5 oz 10.4% Belma 5 Min
2.5 IBU / 0.5 oz 5.0% Amarillo 5 Min
3.2 IBU / 0.5 oz 6.3% Cascade 5 Min
4.3 IBU / 0.5 oz 10.4% Belma 0 Min
2.1 IBU / 0.5 oz 5.0% Amarillo 0 Min
2.6 IBU / 0.5 oz 6.3% Cascade 0 Min
0 IBU / 0.5 oz 10.4% Belma Dry Hop
0 IBU / 0.5 oz 5.0% Amarillo Dry Hop

Yeast

WLP 090 – San Diego Super Yeast
Feel free to use other neutral yeasts or even blend with English varieties

Water

CA 165 ppm
MG <10 ppm
NA <20 ppm
SO4 305 ppm
CL 53 ppm
HCO3 65 ppm
Alk 54 ppm

Mash

Mash at 151? for 1 hr with a pH of 5.3. Mash out at 168 if your system allows. Sparge with 168? water acidified to under a pH of 6.0.

Boil

Add the bittering hops at 60 min. At 10 min left add your kettle fining (SuperMoss/Irish Moss/Whirlfloc) and your yeast nutrient (I use White Labs WLN-1000). With 5 min left add your second hop addition. At flame out add your last hop addition and whirlpool to create a trub cone. If not whirlpooling and cooling quickly with an immersion chiller you may want to move your late hops to a 10 and 15 min addition.

Fermentation

Rack to fermenter at 66? and ensure the wort is well oxygenated. Pitch at 66? and hold below 68? until fermentation is complete. Once fermentation is nearing 90% completion, add your dry hops and let fermentation finish. After 3-4 days, cold crash slowly to 40? and rack into keg or bottle.

Measurements and Calculations

Wort Volume Before Boil: 7.0 US gals
Wort Volume After Boil: 6 US gals
Volume Transferred: 5.5 US gals
Volume Of Finished Beer: 5 US gals
Pre-Boil Gravity: 1.043 SG
OG: 1.051 SG
FG: 1.010 SG
ABV: 5.4 %
IBU (Rager): 40.4 IBU
Color (Morey): 5.7 SRM
Mash Efficiency: 75 %
Fermentation Temp: 68 ?F

When fermenting a batch of beer we often times find ourselves wondering when fermentation will be finished. We have expectations of how our yeast will perform based on an attenuation range for our selected yeast strain but there are many other variables at play. Your wort composition and yeast health will vary from batch to batch and estimations of final gravity are exactly that. A quick and easy test that can be performed at the beginning of fermentation is called the forced ferment test also known as the limit of attenuation test or the fast ferment test.

The theory behind the forced ferment test is simple. Take a small sample of the pitched wort you created and place it on a stir plate in a warm location. Only enough wort is needed to take a hydrometer reading. The constant oxygenation and warm temperature significantly speed up the fermentation of this small sample of wort. Fermentation can be done is as little as one day but will most likely be completed well before the primary batch is finished. The final gravity that is measured at the end of this test can be considered to be the lowest your primary batch will reach. Usually the actual final gravity of the primary batch is a point or two higher.

Performing the fast ferment test will ease any worries you may have about wort fermentability. The FFT can also help you make decisions in the fermentation process. Planning on dry hopping near the end of fermentation or beginning a diacetyl rest? The forced ferment test will tell you where that end is. It is also a good indicator of contamination in the primary batch. If the FG ends up under the FFT then you can be pretty sure that some wild yeast or bacteria got into the fermentor.

I try to perform this test for every batch and it really helps alleviate some of the guess work. For example, I recently brewed a stout that I expected to finish with a final gravity of around 1.012. After performing the FFT it only actually finished at 1.017. I then knew that I created a wort that was not as fermentable as I had hoped, likely due to an excessive amount of flaked barley. If I did not have this information I would have been worried when my primary batch finished at 1.018.

Below is a series of photos with instructions under each explaining the process I use and variations for other brewing equipment.

IMG_8198

Clean and sanitize a small flask. I like to use a 250mL Erlenmeyer Flask with a small stir bar. Ideally you would run this through an autoclave or a pressure cooker to sterilize but a good soaking in starsan will suffice. Cover the lid with a small piece of sanitized aluminum foil. You could also use any other small container that will work on a stir plate. I suppose a mason jar might even do the trick. Just make sure it is clean and sanitized.

IMG_8199

Here is the step where I am a bit spoiled. Pulling a small sample from the conical racking arm is very easy. I sanitize the triclover barb, flame the tip with a small torch, and use the foil from the flask to cover the opening.

IMG_8200

Pull a small sample. You only need enough to be able to obtain a gravity reading once the FFT is completed. I generally shoot for 150mL. If you do not have a conical, you can simply divert this small amount of wort into the flask when you are filling from your kettle. You could also use a wine thief similar to how you would take normal readings from a carboy or bucket. Just take precautions to be as sterile as possible. Any small amount of wild yeast or bacteria can skew the results.

IMG_8202

Here you can see the small sample pulled from the conical on the left. The 2000mL flask on the right contains my pitch of yeast for the primary batch which has already had the starter beer decanted off. This is a key point where my approach differs from published methods which instruct pitching the yeast and THEN pulling your sample. I like to pull my sample from my oxygenated wort and then pitch yeast into my sample. I’ll explain this process below.

IMG_8205

Flame the opening of your sample. If you do not have a bunsen burner, a small alcohol lamp or even a candle can work. This is the best method to attempt to make the transfer without picking up any wild yeast or bacteria. If you do not have any of these flame sources, use a lighter to flame the opening and make the transfer in a draft free room. Notice that the 2000mL flask is empty as it has been pitched into the primary batch.

IMG_8209

Even after pitching into the primary batch, there are always some dregs leftover that do not pour out. There is an amazing amount of yeast in those dregs, enough that you will be overpitching your small 150mL sample. Pour the sample into the dregs from your yeast starter after flaming the lip. If you are pitching directly from a vial or smack pack, you can pour you sample into that as well.

IMG_8213

Give the small sample in the large flask a good stir and then pour back into your small flask. You will notice the frothy head that transfers back. That is all of your yeasty goodness. Briefly flame the opening of the small flask and the aluminium foil and cap loosely.

IMG_8214

Place your sample on a stir plate and let it rip. You do not need a huge vortex for the FFT (or any starter for that matter), just a small dimple on the surface. This is plenty to dissolve the needed oxygen into solution. Ideally you want to place this in a warm location or even an incubator at 80°F if you have access to one. In the winter I usually put my starters on top of my refrigerator.

IMG_8216

After a day or so you will notice significant yeast growth and the FFT will start to turn a milky color.

IMG_8224

Once fermentation has completed, shut off you stir plate and let the yeast settle to the bottom. Look at all that yeast! If you are making another beer with this same strain, you could use this to step into another starter, especially if you took precautions to be as sterile as possible.

IMG_8228

Pour you FFT into you hydrometer test tube and take a gravity reading. Note that 150mL is just enough to get an accurate reading. If you expect the FG to be well below 1.010 you may want to take 200mL at the beginning to be safe.

IMG_8230

And finally a shot of the reading. Go ahead and taste the FFT beer but do not be alarmed when it tastes oxidized/papery/yeasty/harsh. This pale ale ended up finishing just a touch over 1.011. This means I can expect the primary beer to at least hit an FG of 1.013. I plan on dry hopping directly in the fermentor with only 4 gravity points (1°P) left to ferment so I now know that when I get a reading of around 1.017 I should be good to go.

So there is my method for performing the FFT. I think if you can find a way to work this into your brewing routine you will be amazed at the information you can gather from this simple test. Feel free to comment below with questions/comments or lay out a method you may use for the FFT. Cheers!

Not sure we could have fit any more hops!

Not sure we could have fit any more hops!

Brewing IPA’s is not my strong suit. Give me malt forward beers all day long and I will knock them out of the park. That being said, I was glad my friend Mungus coerced me into brewing 15 gallons of one for his wedding. I couldn’t say no and I needed the brewing practice. Just because I prefer to drink malt forward beers I still need to be a master of the hops. To make things even more interesting, I had just upgraded to a 15 gallon brew kettle and this was its maiden voyage. I and no idea what my boil off would be, how my hop utilization would be affected, if my volumes were accurate, etc. And to top it all off, we did a double brew day and made 10 gallons of a Flanders Red before hand. Nothing like a brew day challenge.

Mungus Owning the hops

Mungus Owning the hops

To move between 10 and 15 gallons (and even 5) I like to think of the malt bill in percentages. This is why I always include them in my recipes. It is much easier to scale between volumes when working in percentages than in strict pounds. Hops are a little trickier. Bittering is easy as you can adjust for IBU’s but for flavor and aroma you just use your “brewers intuition”. In reality though, calculated IBU ratios can still work for flavor and aroma additions they just don’t adjust as precisely.

Mungus and Hungus

Mungus and Hungus

When I have brew hop forward beers I like to do a two step hop whirlpool. One hot whirlpool addition and one cold whirlpool addition. So basically I only add a “small” amount of bittering hops at the beginning of the boil then hit it hard once the flame is out. This helps to keep from volatilizing off all of the hop aromatics. The cold whirlpool acts as a hop back would by doing a cold steep. For dry hopping, I like to do two short (3-5 day) additions. The first is always near the end of fermentation (about 90% to terminal gravity) right in the fermenter. This ensures that there are still some convection currents at work in the fermenter that will help to fully mix the hops. The second addition I can also do in the conical once I dump the first addition and yeast. If you don’t have a conical, this is where you would do them in a secondary or in a keg.

So here is the recipe. Take note of the sugar addition (dryness) and the aggressive water chemistry (accentuate hops):

 

Dank Love IPA (Batch Number 154)

14B –American IPA
Recipe for 16.5 gallons Post Boil

Malts/Sugars

16 lb/43.8%  Breiss 2-row
14 lb/38.4%  Weyerman German Pilser
3 lb/8.2%      Breiss Carapils
1.5lb/4.1%    Breiss Caramel 60L
2 lb/5.5%      Dextrose Sugar

Hops

12 ml  Hop Extract   40IBU 60 Min
2.5 oz Simcoe          14.5% 0 Min
2.5 oz Citra              15.1% 0 Min
2.5 oz Centennial     10.1% 0 Min
3 oz    Simcoe           14.5% -25 Min
3 oz    Citra               15.1% -25 Min
3 oz    Centennial     10.1% -25 Min
2 oz    Simcoe          14.5% In Fermenter
2 oz   Citra               15.1% In Fermenter
2 oz   Centennial     10.1% Dry Hop
2 oz   Citra               15.1% Dry Hop

Yeast

Conan Yeast cultured from Heady Topper can.

Water

Strike: 11 gal, 41.8g caso4, 8.8g cacl2
Sparge: 12 gal, 45.6g caso4, 9.6g cacl2, 2.9 ml phosphoric 85%

CA 312
MG 7
NA 23
SO4 283
CL 51
HCO3 109

Mash Schedule

Single Infusion at 149 for 60 min reserving caramel malt. Add caramel malt and mash out to 168.

Measurements and Calculations

Wort Volume Before Boil: 18.75 US gals
Wort Volume After Boil: 16.5 US gals
Volume Transferred: 15.75 US gals
Volume Of Finished Beer: 15.00 US gals
Pre-Boil Gravity: 1.046 SG
OG: 1.062 SG
FG: 1.013 SG
Apparent Attenuation: 78 %
ABV: 6.5 %
IBU (Rager): 100+ IBU
Color (Morey): 7 SRM
Mash Efficiency: 68 %
Mash pH: 5.65
Fermentation Temp: 68 ?F
Fast ferment test: 1.011

Process Notes

Mashed at 149 with no recirculation since I was doing a double batch with my friend Mungus. 75 min into the mash we started the recirculation and raised mash temp to 168 for mash out. Held a slow sparge and lauter but still had a low efficiency. This was very likely due to pre crush that Mungus brought from Morebeer. My crush is always a bit finer. We added the caramel at the start recirculation to keep the mash ph in the proper range although it ended up being high at 5.65.

Hops into the kettle

Hops into the kettle

We used 12ml hop shot (hop extract) to achieve 40 IBU at 60 min. Added water pre boil to hit starting volume. Boiled down 2.25 gal. Had to add DME to get gravity back up. Sugars added at 10 min along with nutrient and Super Moss HB. At flame out added the first charge of hops and whirlpooled for 15 min. Cooled wort down to 75 over 10 min and added second charge of hops. Continued whirlpool for 15 min. Stopped whirlpool and racked to fermenter at 66*.

Pitched 700 ml of slurry harvested from previous batch in conical. Serious fermentation action by next morning. Day 4 down to 1.027. Day 7 still fermenting but slowing. Strong hop aroma. Day 8 ferm very slow and gravity at 1.016. Added 4 oz dry hop directly into fermenter. Day 11. Gravity 1.013. Dumped 1250 ml trub from bottom dump. Added 4 oz dry hop directly into conical. Cooled to 60 for three days on the second hop addition. Did a quick 12 hr cold crash. Filled three kegs.

Tasting Notes

At three weeks old this was one of the best IPA’s I had ever made. It had a wonderfully smooth hop bitterness that really sold me on using hop extract. The hop flavors and aroma balanced very nicely with the fruity esters from the Heady Topper yeast. There were huge notes of Citrus and Apricot. The beer had an amazingly bright clarity for an IPA. We served 10 gallons of this at Mungus’s wedding and it was one of the first beers to go. The keg I had on tap at home didn’t last long at all either. All 15 gallons was probably gone before it was 5 weeks old.

IPA turned to Butterscotch

IPA turned to Butterscotch

I bottled a 6 pack to enter in local competitions and boy did I get a surprise. At about the 9 week mark, something happened to those bottles that turned the beer into a Diacetyl bomb. When I got my scoresheet back from the competition I immediately cracked one of the 4 I had left certain that they had judged the wrong beer. Sure enough the same feedback I had gotten on that scoresheet matched what was in the bottles in my basement. The beer turned very hazy, darkened, and threw down a large sediment. I am still baffled as to how such a bright, lightly colored beer going into the bottles threw this of flavor. My guess is that it was an infection from the recycled yeast or possibly my original culture from the Heady Topper can did not get a pure strain. I plan to scrap the yeast I have on a slant and go in search of ECY29 as the pure culture. So it goes. At least we enjoyed the hell out of this before it turned!

Cheers!

-Hungus

Saison and the Owls

Saison and the Owls

Sometimes I decide on what recipe to brew based on ingredients I have kicking around. Maybe I have a sack of Maris Otter so I will brew a streak of British Beers or a lot of american hops so I’ll do a streak of IPA’s.  In this case, I had a container of ECY30 Brettanomyces naardenensis that I bought from Al at a home-brew club meeting and some Danstar Belle Saison dry yeast packets given out at the National Homebrew Conference. These two yeasts could work very well together so I came up with a saison recipe based loosely on some rye saisons The Mad Fermentationist has over on his blog. For the base beer malt selection the rye adds some color and a subtle spiciness, the wheat should help with head retention, and the pale would result in a fuller malt flavor.

Saison aging with Brett

Saison aging with Brett

Overall I was really impressed with the performance of the Belle Saison yeast. I rehydrated the two packets, pitched into 68* wort, and had fermentation activity within 30 hrs. I set the BCS controller to slowly ramp the beer up to 75* over 3 days and then hold there. The beer finished off at 1.006 with a great balance of dryness and sweet fermentation esters. The rye was definitely background and I would go up to 30% if I really wanted to have it as a prominent flavor. I kegged 5 gallons of the beer and the other 5 gallons I racked into a glass carboy and pitched the Brett. It has been aging for about three months now and I plan to give it another three before sampling.

Saison with Rye (Batch Number 146)

16C – Saison
Recipe for 11.5 gallons Post Boil

Malts

9 lb/43.9% Dingemans Belgian Pilsner
6 lb/28.6% Breiss Pale Ale
4 lb/19% Breiss Rye
2 lb/9.5% Weyerman German Wheat

Hops

3 oz Slovenian Styrian Goldings 3.8 % 60 Min
2 oz Slovenian Styrian Goldings 3.5 % 10 min

Yeast

Danstar Belle Saison Dry Yeast – 2 Packets
East Coast Yeast ECY 30 Brett Naardenesis – 1 vial

Mash pH measurement

Mash pH measurement

Water

Strike: 7 gal, 3.5g caso4, 2.1g cacl2, 57.4 ml phosphoric 10%
Sparge: 9.25 gal, 4.6g caso4, 2.8g cacl2, 51.4 ml phosphoric 10%
CA 106
MG 10
NA 3
SO4 66
CL 29
HCO3 0

Mash Schedule

Strike at 131 and hold for 10 min. Raise heat to 149 and hold for 40 min. Mash out to 168. All temperature increases via recirculation and heating HLT.

Measurements and Calculations

Wort Volume Before Boil:13.00 US gals
Wort Volume After Boil:11.5 US gals
Volume Transferred:10.75 US gals
Volume Of Finished Beer:10.00 US gals
Pre-Boil Gravity:1.050 SG
OG:1.056 SG
FG:1.006 SG
Apparent Attenuation:88.8 %
ABV:6.6 %
IBU(Rager):28 IBU
Color (Morey): 4 SRM
Mash Efficiency:83.6 %
Mash pH: 5.35
Fermentation Temp: 75 ?F
Fast ferment test: 1.005

Process Notes

Measured the Mash pH at 5.36 at 78? 14 min into the mash. Ran a slow lauter and sparge and collected 13 gal of wort.

Rolling 90 min boil. Added bittering hops 30 min into boil. Added ½ tsp rehydrated Supermoss HB and 1 tsp Wyeast nutrient at 10 min. After 90 min, whirlpooled in boil kettle for 5 min then shut off pump to let settle. Racked into conical (first batch in conical) at 65*.

Filling the Conical post boil. This was its maiden voyage.

Filling the Conical post boil. This was its maiden voyage.

Used Danstar Belle Saison dry yeast that I got for free at the National Homebrew Conference in Philadelphia. Oxygenated wort for 2min. Redydrated both packets and pitched into wort. Active fermentation within 30 hrs. After 10 days cold crash to 35 degrees and let settle for 3 more days. Rack under pressure into one keg and the other 5 gallons I racked into a 5 gallon glass carboy. Pitched oen vial of ECY30 into carboy and let sit at room temperature. Carbonated keg at 3 vol CO2.

Tasting Notes

The carboy has been aging on Brett for almost three months now and I will let it go another three before tasting. Al Buck from East Coast Yeast recommends giving this Brett some time to age. The kegged batch is almost gone but has been very enjoyable. A lot of this beer is about the fermentation and I would definitely use this dry yeast again! It dried the beer out nicely while not being too dry because there are plenty of sweet alcohols and esters to balance. The rye and pale malt work very well together for a subtle complexity. Its going to be tough waiting another three months to taste the brett version.

Recirculating wort during the mash

Recirculating wort during the mash

Yeast selection can have a huge impact on the overall balance of the beer you are brewing. This became very apparent to me recently when I brewed two examples of American amber ale. Both were hopped very similarly and both had similar grain bills. The main difference was the yeast I chose to ferment each batch. The first batch was fermented with ECY21 East Coast Yeast Kolsch while this batch was fermented with yeast that I harvested from a can of the infamous Heady Topper. The amber that was fermented with the Kolsch yeast was clearly malt dominated with very restrained hop flavor and bitterness while the amber that was fermented with the Heady Topper yeast had a more pronounced bitterness and hop flavor with a balancing malt profile. I instantly fell in love with the head topper yeast.

Filling kegs of Amber from the Conical

Filling kegs of Amber from the Conical

The recipe below is the batch that was fermented with that yeast. The recipe has its roots in Brewing Classic Styles as the west coast blaster. BCS is an excellent book and one that I have gotten many recipes for over the years. This is the fifth time this recipe has been brewed and I must say this is one of my favorite versions so far. The third batch of this recipe won a first place out of 59 American Ales in the 2013 National Homebrew Competition round 1. The name comes from one of my good friends, Tribes, for whom I usually split this beer with. He loves the hop flavor and aroma balanced by the caramel and toasty malt sweetness. Now let’s get to the recipe.

Tribes Amber (Batch Number 151)

10B – American Amber Ale
Recipe for 12 gallons Post Boil

Malts

18lb/80.1% Breiss 2-Row
1.5lb/6.7% Breiss Caramel 20L
1lb/4.3% Weyerman Munich
.75lb/3.3% Breiss Caramel 120L
0.75lb/3.3% Breiss Victory
0.5lb/2.2% Fawcett Pale Chocolate

Hops

1 oz US Horizon 10.3 % 60 Min
1 oz US Centennial 10.0 % At Flameout
1 oz US Cascade 6.3 % At Flameout
2 oz US Centennial 6.3 % 10 min into whirlpool
2 oz US Cascade 8.9 % 10 min into whirlpool

Yeast

Heady topper bottle culture pitched approx 420 billion cells.

Water

Strike: 7.5 gal, 4.9g caso4, 2.9g cacl2, 1.7 ml phosphoric 85%
Sparge: 9 gal, 5.9g caso4, 3.4g cacl2, 3.1 ml phosphoric 85%

CA 88
MG 10
NA 3
SO4 111
CL 50
HCO3 46

Mash Schedule

Maintain 151 for 1 hr then mash out through recirculation to 168.

Measurements and Calculations

Wort Volume Before Boil:13.00 US gals
Wort Volume After Boil:12.00 US gals
Volume Transferred:11.25 US gals
Volume Of Finished Beer:10.00 US gals
Pre-Boil Gravity:1.054 SG
OG:1.060 SG
FG:1.016 SG
Apparent Attenuation:72.2 %
ABV:5.8 %
IBU:36.6 IBU
Color:13.3 SRM
Mash Efficiency:85.6 %
Mash pH: 5.3
Fermentation Temp: 66 ?F
Fast ferment test: 1.014

Process Notes

Measured the Mash pH at 5.32 at 72?18 min into the mash. Ran a slow lauter and sparge and collected 12.5 gal of wort. Overshot gravity and undershot volume so I added 0.5 gal water to hit 13 gal and 1.054 pre boil gravity.
Rolling 60 min boil. Added bittering hops at beginning of boil. Added 1/2tsp rehydrated Supermoss HB and 1 tsp Wyeast nutrient at 10 min. Killed flame and added 2 oz hop charge. Whirlpooled in boil kettle for 15 min then shut off pump and added 4 oz hop charge. Let hops steep for another 5 min then started racking to conical at 63.
Used a heady topper yeast that was built up from a slant. 10ml-> 250ml->2.6L for 420 billion cells. Oxygenated wort for 2min and pitched entire starter. Active fermentation within 21 hrs and by 40 hrs was fully fermenting. After 10 days cold crash to 40 degrees and let settle for 4 more days. Rack under pressure into two kegs. Carbonate at 2.5 vol CO2.

Tasting Notes

The Heady Topper Yeast accentuated the citrus and grapefruit flavors and aromas of the hops. Also developed a fruity sweet ester profile that complements very nicely. Malt is mainly caramel and toast and nicely balanced by the bitterness. Nice white head with good retention and fine bubbles. Medium mouthfeel with a fairly dry finish. When I brew this again I would like the beer to attenuate a bit more to lower the malt sweetness.